00:00:00Translator: Eatedal Saii Auditor: Anwar Dafa-Alla
00:00:14How do we learn if?
00:00:16And why some of us learn more easily than others?
00:00:21If as I mentioned, I am Dr. Lara Bond.
00:00:24I am a researcher in the brain here at the University of British Columbia.
00:00:28There are questions fascinates me.
00:00:35Search in the brain is one of the greatest big prospects
00:00:38In the understanding of human psychology,
00:00:41And also taking into account what we make us what it is.
00:00:45It is a fun time to be a researcher in the brain,
00:00:47I can persuade you
00:00:49That I enjoyed Bamta jobs in the world.
00:00:52What we know about the brain variable rhythm breathtaking.
00:00:56The more we know and understand more about the brain
00:00:59It shows that it is not true or unfinished.
00:01:03A few of the misunderstandings are more obvious than others.
00:01:06For example, we used to think
00:01:09After the age of childhood and is unable to change does not change.
00:01:14It shows that he is far away from the truth.
00:01:18Another misconception about the brain
00:01:19You are using parts of it at any time
00:01:23And it stops when they do not do anything.
00:01:25Well, this is also true.
00:01:27Show up at the time of your convenience
00:01:29Do not think about something, your brain active dramatically.
00:01:33If there are advances in technology such as magnetic resonance imaging,
00:01:37This allows us to these discoveries and more.
00:01:40Perhaps the most fun,
00:01:42The most interesting and transformation in these discoveries
00:01:45Is every time you learn new information or skill,
00:01:49You change your mind.
00:01:51It’s something that we call the neural flexibility.
00:01:54Less than 25 years ago, we thought that after puberty,
00:01:58The only change that is happening in the brain was negative:
00:02:01The loss of brain cells with aging,
00:02:03Causing damage, your stroke.
00:02:06After this, studies have begun to show a large number of
00:02:09Of reorganization in the adult brain.
00:02:13The research showed us that followed
00:02:15That all of our behaviors change the brain.
00:02:19These changes are not limited to progress with age,
00:02:23This good news is true?
00:02:24In fact, it’s always occur.
00:02:29Re-organization of the brain helps to support the recovery process
00:02:32After the damage caused to the brain.
00:02:34The key to all these changes is the flexibility of nerve.
00:02:39What if you resemble?
00:02:41If your brain can be changed through three basic ways
00:02:44To support learning.
00:02:45And the first chemical method.
00:02:48If the brain really works through the transfer of chemical signals
00:02:51Between what we call the nerve cells of the brain cells,
00:02:53This raises a range of actions and reactions.
00:02:57If learning to support your brain can increase the quantity
00:03:00By focusing on these chemical signals
00:03:03That occur between neurons.
00:03:06Because this change can happen quickly,
00:03:09This supports short-term memory
00:03:10Or improve in the short term in the performance of motor skills.
00:03:15The second way the brain can be changed to support learning
00:03:18It is by changing its structure.
00:03:21If cross-learning, the brain can Agier connections between neurons.
00:03:25Here, the physical structure of the brain of changing
00:03:28This takes some time.
00:03:30This type of changes for long-term memory,
00:03:33Long-term improvement in motor skills.
00:03:37These processes interact, and let me give you an example of how this.
00:03:41We all tried to learn a new skill mobility,
00:03:44Maybe playing the piano,
00:03:46Maybe learn to run.
00:03:48I had the experience of improvement for the better
00:03:50During one session of training,
00:03:53The belief “I have managed them”
00:03:55And then, perhaps come back the next day,
00:03:57All improvements from the first day have disappeared.
00:04:02Well, in the short term, the brain is able to increase
00:04:05Chemical signals between nerve cells.
00:04:08But for some reason, these changes did not include structural changes
00:04:13Mission to support the long-term memory.
00:04:17Remember this long-term memories takes time.
00:04:20And what you see in the short term does not reflect the learning,
00:04:23It is these physical changes
00:04:25Which will now support the long-term memories,
00:04:27Chemical signals, which in turn supports these memories.
00:04:32Structural changes can also lead to integrated networks of brain regions
00:04:36Which works as a whole to support learning.
00:04:39Which can lead to certain brain regions
00:04:41Significance is very accurate for the actions of
00:04:44Change your temple or expansion.
00:04:46If here are some examples.
00:04:49People are people who read Braille (reading system for the blind)
00:04:51They have sensory areas in their brains bigger hand than those who did not (reading)
00:04:56The dominant motor areas, which are located on the left side of the brain,
00:05:00If you’re a right-wing, it is greater than the other.
00:05:04The research show taxi drivers in London
00:05:07Who already had a map of London and Save the Ihlsoa market leave,
00:05:12They have larger brain areas dedicated to space or memory maps.
00:05:17Another way can be changed by your brain to support learning
00:05:23Also used brain regions,
00:05:25It is becoming more and more excited and easy to use again.
00:05:29As your brain has these areas that increase in provoke,
00:05:32The brain will change how and when do these areas.
00:05:35We see, learning
00:05:37That all brain activity networks is changing and changing.
00:05:42If flexibility is supported nerve
00:05:44Of the chemical, and structural and functional changes
00:05:48These occur at full brain.
00:05:51It can occur in isolation from one another,
00:05:53But dearly occur completely.
00:05:57With some, they support learning.
00:05:59And they speak most often.
00:06:04I told you just how wonderful the neural flexibility in Admgtkm.
00:06:08Why do not you’ll learn anything Takhtaroh easily?
00:06:13Why sometimes we fail our children in school?
00:06:16Why, when we grow up we tend to forget things?
00:06:20And why people do not completely recover from brain damage?
00:06:23This is: What are the limits and facilities neuroplasticity?
00:06:29That if I teach.
00:06:31I study particularly Maitalq recovery from stroke.
00:06:35More recently, the rate dropped strokes
00:06:36Of the third factor leading to death in the United States
00:06:40The fourth factor to the cause of death.
00:06:42Good news is true?
00:06:44But in fact, show
00:06:46That the number of people who have strokes not diminished.
00:06:49We are an improvement in keeping people alive after strong strokes.
00:06:53It shows that it is very difficult to help the brain recover from the stroke.
00:06:59We fail to develop effective shifts in rehabilitation.
00:07:05The final outcome of this is that stroke is the main cause
00:07:09In a long-term disability for adults in the world
00:07:13Individuals with stroke are smaller
00:07:15And often they live longer with those disabilities,
00:07:18The search of the two groups in fact shows
00:07:21That the quality of life related to health with a number Alkndiyon stroke has decreased
00:07:26Obviously we have to be better
00:07:28In helping people recover from stroke.
00:07:30This is a very large societal problem,
00:07:33A problem that does not solve it.
00:07:36If what can be done?
00:07:38Something is certainly clear:
00:07:41Best Carrier change nervous flexibility in your brain is your behavior.
00:07:46The problem is the behavior of the dose, dose of exercise
00:07:50Required to learn something new and re-learn the old dynamic skill,
00:07:55And how to deliver these large doses of exercise effectively
00:07:58Is a very difficult problem: an expensive problem, too.
00:08:03If the trend taken by research
00:08:05It is the development of treatments ready or preparing the brain to learn.
00:08:09These include brain simulation exercises, and robots.
00:08:14But during the research discovered that the biggest obstacle
00:08:18To develop treatments accelerate the healing process of stroke
00:08:21Flexibility is the neural patterns vary from person to person.
00:08:28As a researcher, the difference drives me crazy.
00:08:32It makes use of a very difficult Statistics
00:08:35To test your data and your thoughts.
00:08:38For this reason, medical intervention studies are
00:08:41Specially designed to bridge the difference.
00:08:45But in my research, clearly shows
00:08:48That the most important data in terms of information and front-that we collect
00:08:52This disparity appears.
00:08:56If during the study of the brain after a stroke, we have learned a lot,
00:09:00I think that these lessons very valuable in other ways.
00:09:06The first lesson is
00:09:07The main carrier of change in your brain is your behavior,
00:09:11This serum no neurological flexibility you can Akhaddh.
00:09:15Nothing is more important than training to help yourself to learn,
00:09:19The starting point is that you must do the work.
00:09:23In fact, research has shown
00:09:25Increasingly difficult, increasingly conflict if it did during the training,
00:09:30In fact leads to two things to learn more,
00:09:32And more change in the brain structure.
00:09:37The problem here is that the neural flexibility can work in two directions.
00:09:42Can be positive, learn something new,
00:09:45Improved mobility and skill.
00:09:47It can be negative, to forget something learned before,
00:09:51Become addicted to drugs,
00:09:53You may become chronic pain.
00:09:56Flexible brain dramatically if
00:09:58The structurally and functionally through everything you do,
00:10:03But also through everything you do not.
00:10:07The second lesson that we have learned about the brain is
00:10:09There is no single approach can be suitable for everyone to learn.
00:10:14If there is no recipe for learning.
00:10:16Let’s take into account the common belief required 10,000 hours of training
00:10:20To learn and professionalism of a new dynamic skill.
00:10:23I assure you it is not easy.
00:10:27for each other,
00:10:28More training will be taken, and some will be less.
00:10:32If the formation of the flexible mind is very special
00:10:36There will be no interference Sinfana as a whole.
00:10:41This realization forced us to consider something called personalized medicine.
00:10:46This idea is to improve results
00:10:49Each individual requires its intervention.
00:10:53In fact, this idea came from cancer treatments.
00:10:55And here it has shown that genetics is very important in matching
00:10:59Specific types of chemotherapy with certain forms of cancer.
00:11:04Research shows that this can be applied to recovery from stroke.
00:11:08There are specific characteristics of structural and functional brain
00:11:11Call it vital indicators.
00:11:12These indicators help prove to be a very
00:11:15It helps us we match
00:11:17Certain types of treatments of individuals with two patients.
00:11:20Data from the laboratory suggests a combination of vital signs
00:11:24Best prediction by changing the neural flexibility and forms of recovery after stroke.
00:11:29This is not a surprise, given the complexity of the human brain.
00:11:34But I also think that we must take this concept on a larger scale.
00:11:39Because of the distinctive structural and functional brain in each of our brains
00:11:43What we have learned about neuroplasticity after stroke is applied to everyone.
00:11:50Behaviors that we apply in our daily mission.
00:11:54Each one of them to change your mind.
00:11:57And we think we have to take into account
00:11:59Not to personalize medicine, but the diagnosis of learning
00:12:03Characterize your brain will affect you
00:12:05As a student and also a teacher together.
00:12:08This idea helps us to understand
00:12:11Why are some children who can Azahroa in traditional educational conditions
00:12:15And some do not
00:12:17Why do some of us can learn languages easily
00:12:19However, some can be picking up any sport and outperform.
00:12:25If when you leave this room today,
00:12:28Dmagkm will not be back as it was in the morning when you came.
00:12:32I think that this is absolutely gorgeous.
00:12:36But each one of you Sagier his brain about different.
00:12:40Understand these differences,
00:12:42These individual forms, this change of diversity
00:12:46It will enable significant progress in neuroscience:
00:12:49It will allow us to develop new and more effective interventions,
00:12:53And allow the learners of matches and teachers,
00:12:57Patients and interventions.
00:13:00This does not apply to recovery after stroke,
00:13:03He applied all of us, as parents, teachers, as administrators,
00:13:08And also because you are in TEDx today, Ktmwalimon a lifetime.
00:13:13Adersoa how and what you want to learn better.
00:13:16This repeated most of the health Odmgtkm behaviors,
00:13:20Smashing those behaviors and habits harmful.
00:13:26Learning is to do the work required by your brain.
00:13:30If best strategies will be varied between individuals.
00:13:34You know, it would be varied between individuals.
00:13:37If for you, you learn music can be very easily,
00:13:40But learning skiing, much harder.
00:13:44I hope that you leave today
00:13:46With a new estimate of how much greatness Admgtkm.
00:13:49You flex your mind and constantly re-configured by the world around you.
00:13:54I understand everything you do,
00:13:57Everything faces, and everything Agier testing your brain.
00:14:01This can be the best, but it can be the worst.
00:14:05If when you leave today they come out and build the brain that you want.
00:14:10Thank you very much.